The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) was negotiated between 1986 and 1994 as part of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which led to the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The TRIPS agreement sets minimum levels for different types of intellectual property protection, including copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design and trade secret protection. WTO membership implies an obligation to respect the TRIPS agreement. According to the WTO, the agreement seeks to strike a balance between long-term social benefits to society through increased innovation and short-term costs to society due to lack of access to inventions (World Trade Organization: Intellectual Property: Protection and Enforcement. Appeal of the WTO agreement: agreements: wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/agrm7_e.htm). The Agreement on Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is an agreement of international law between all World Trade Organization (WTO) member states. It sets minimum standards for the regulation of different forms of intellectual property by national governments, as is the case for nationals of other WTO member states.  The TRIPS agreement was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) between 1989 and 1990 and is managed by the WTO. An agreement reached in 2003 relaxed domestic market requirements and allows developing countries to export to other countries with a public health problem as long as exported drugs are not part of a trade or industrial policy.  Drugs exported under such regulations may be packaged or coloured differently to prevent them from affecting the markets of industrialized countries. Article 40 of the TRIPS ON Agreement recognizes that certain practices or licensing conditions related to intellectual property rights that limit competition can have negative effects on trade and impede the transfer and dissemination of technology (paragraph 1). Member States may adopt appropriate measures under the other provisions of the agreement to prevent or control abusive and anti-competitive intellectual property licensing practices (paragraph 2).