The International Space Station Agreement Of 1998

Regarding the extension of the ISS, on 15 November 2016, RSC Energia Director General Vladimir Solntsev said: “Perhaps the ISS will receive additional funding. Today we discussed the possibility of using the station until 2028,” with discussions that will continue under the new presidential administration. [Citation required] Proposals were also made that the station could be converted into commercial operation after being removed from state service. [67] U.S. President Barack Obama supported the continued operation of the station and supported the Nasa Authorization Act of 2008. [53] Obama`s space exploration plan includes the completion of the station and the completion of U.S. programs related to the Orion spacecraft. [54] The station consists of two faces: the Russian orbital segment (ROS) and the orbital segment of the U.S. (USOS). [38] Four MoUs between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and each cooperating space agency: the European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and the Japan Aeronautical Exploration Agency (JAXA). The European Space Agency`s allocation rights represent 8.3% of the resources for the use of the space station (for example. B communications) and 8.3% of occupancy time, or about 13 hours per week. For tourist accommodation establishments (for example.

B Laboratories), ESA has entered into an exchange agreement with NASA for the use of 51% of the European Columbus laboratory in exchange for shuttle services. This extension of national jurisdiction will determine the laws applicable to activities that take place on elements of a partner`s space station (for example. B European law in the European laboratory in Columbus). This legal order recognizes the jurisdiction of partner states and allows the application of national laws in areas such as criminal cases, liability issues and the protection of intellectual property rights. Conflicts of jurisdiction between partners can be resolved through the application of other rules and procedures already developed at national and international level. Over the years, the International Space Station ISS has been the subject of various criticisms. Critics say the time and money spent on the ISS could be better spent on other projects, whether it`s robotic missions for space vehicles, space exploration, studying problems on Earth or simply tax savings. [82] Some critics, such as Robert L. Park, argue that very little scientific research has been convincingly planned for the ISS.

[83] They also argue that the main feature of a space laboratory is its microgravity environment, which can generally be studied at a lower cost using a “vomit comet”. [84] At the end of 2011, the Gateway Platform Exploration concept also proposed the use of the remaining USOS and Zvezda 2 as a fuel depot and gas station at one of the Terre-Lune Lagrange points. However, the entire USOS was not designed for dismantling and is rejected. [60] The International Space Station program is bound by a complex series of legal, political and financial agreements between the 16 nations participating in the project, which govern the ownership of the various components, occupancy and occupancy rights, crew rotation responsibilities and resupply of the International Space Station. It was designed in 1984 by President Ronald Reagan during the Space Station Freedom project, as it was originally called. [2] These agreements link the five space agencies and their respective international Space Station programs and regulate how they interact on a daily basis to maintain the operation of stations, from spacecraft circulation control to the use of space and occupation, to the use of space and occupation.

Dieser Beitrag wurde unter Allgemein veröffentlicht. Setze ein Lesezeichen auf den Permalink.